September 26, 2023 at 10:00 p.m. EDT
However when the U.S.-based supervisor of Fb’s Coordinated Inauthentic Conduct (CIB) unit instructed colleagues in India that the unit needed to delete the community’s pages, executives within the New Delhi workplace pushed again. They warned towards antagonizing the federal government of a sovereign nation over actions in territory it controls. They stated they wanted to seek the advice of native legal professionals. They frightened they could possibly be imprisoned for treason.
These objections staved off motion for a full 12 months whereas the Indian military unit continued to unfold disinformation that put Kashmiri journalists in peril. The impasse was resolved solely when prime Fb executives intervened and ordered the faux accounts deleted.
“It was open-and-shut” that the Chinar Corps had violated Fb’s guidelines towards utilizing fictional personas to surreptitiously promote a story, stated an worker who labored on the Kashmir venture. “That was the second that just about broke CIB and virtually made a bunch of us give up.”
Three others who had been concerned confirmed the beforehand unreported inner battle. Most of those that spoke to The Washington Publish mentioned firm issues on the situation they not be named. Fb didn’t dispute their account.
The Kashmir case is only one instance of how Fb has fallen in need of its professed beliefs in India below strain from Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s Bharatiya Janata Celebration (BJP). India, a rustic whose inhabitants is 80 p.c Hindu and 14 p.c Muslim, has lengthy wrestled with non secular strife. However previously decade, the Hindu nationalist BJP has been accused of abetting violence and fanning incendiary speech towards Muslims to stoke help from its political base. And infrequently, when dangerous content material is unfold by BJP politicians or their allies on Fb, the platform has been reluctant to take motion. The corporate denied performing to favor the BJP.
For Silicon Valley, which has seen person numbers in the USA plateau and worldwide development develop into essential to Wall Road shareholders, India is the most important remaining prize and a great market. It’s considerably English-speaking and quickly rising, a tech-savvy democracy that’s being wooed by the Biden administration to counter China. The variety of Fb customers in India is larger than your entire U.S. inhabitants; India can be one of many largest markets for X, previously often known as Twitter. That’s meant particular therapy for content material that in any other case would violate each platforms’ phrases of service.
Fb’s cautious method to moderating pro-government content material in India was typically exacerbated by a long-standing dynamic: Workers liable for rooting out hackers and propagandists — typically based mostly in the USA — regularly clashed with executives in India who had been employed for his or her political expertise or relationships with the federal government, and who held political beliefs that aligned with the BJP’s.
Interviews with greater than 20 present and former staff and a assessment of newly obtained inner Fb paperwork illustrate how executives repeatedly shied away from punishing the BJP or related accounts. The interviews and paperwork present that native Fb executives did not take down movies and posts of Hindu nationalist leaders, even once they overtly referred to as for killing Indian Muslims.
In 2019, after damning media reviews and whistleblower disclosures, Fb’s father or mother firm, now named Meta, bowed to strain and employed an outdoor regulation agency to look at its dealing with of human rights in India. That probe discovered that Fb didn’t cease hate speech or requires motion forward of violence, together with a bloody non secular riot in Delhi in 2020 that was incited by Hindu nationalist leaders and left greater than 50 individuals, largely Muslims, lifeless. Meta by no means printed the doc, strictly restricted which executives noticed it and issued a public abstract that emphasized the culpability of “third events.”
Social media corporations right this moment don’t lose a lot once they name out the Russian or Chinese language governments for propaganda or dismantle networks of pretend accounts tied to these international locations. Most U.S. social media platforms are banned in these international locations, or they don’t generate important income there.
However India is on the forefront of a worrying development, in response to Silicon Valley executives from a number of corporations who’ve handled the problems. The Modi administration is setting an instance for a way authoritarian governments can dictate to American social media platforms what content material they need to protect and what they need to take away, whatever the corporations’ guidelines. Nations together with Brazil, Nigeria and Turkey are following the India mannequin, executives say. In 2021, Brazil’s then president, Jair Bolsonaro, sought to ban social networks from eradicating posts, together with his personal, that questioned whether or not Brazil’s elections can be rigged. In Nigeria, then-President Muhammadu Buhari banned Twitter after it eliminated one in all his tweets threatening a extreme crackdown towards rebels.
The day earlier than Could’s tight election in Turkey, Twitter agreed to ban accounts on the course of the administration of President Recep Tayyip Erdogan, together with that of investigative journalist Cevheri Guven, an Erdogan critic.
“Nigeria very a lot took Modi’s playbook, and it exacerbated current tensions in Turkey,” stated a former Twitter coverage lead, talking on the situation of anonymity to debate inner issues.
“All the onerous questions round tech come to a head in India. It’s a big market, it’s a democracy, however it’s a democracy with weak judicial protections, and it’s actually geopolitically vital,” stated Brian Fishman, a former U.S. Military counterterrorism skilled who led efforts to combat extremism and hate teams for Fb till 2021.
U.S. officers depend upon nuclear-armed India as a strategic counterweight to neighboring China. They usually have been keen to miss human rights abuses and different issues in India as a result of the officers deem the geopolitics the next precedence, former U.S. officers say. India’s success towards the web corporations has impressed many imitators, Fishman added.
“We’re shifting into an period across the globe the place governments have gotten off their palms and constructed authorized frameworks, and in some circumstances extralegal frameworks, that permit them to instantly strain the businesses,” he stated.
When Fb’s U.S. investigators first noticed the posts from accounts that presupposed to be residents in Kashmir, it wasn’t onerous to search out proof of a central group. Posts from totally different accounts got here in bursts, utilizing related phrases. Usually, they praised the Indian army or criticized India’s regional rivals — Pakistan and its closest ally, China.
The technical details about among the accounts overlapped, and the geolocation information related to some accounts led on to a constructing belonging to the Indian military.
The disinformation hunters additionally discovered that the faux accounts typically tagged the official account of the Chinar Corps, India’s important army power in Kashmir, displaying that they weren’t placing nice effort into disguising themselves.
For a few months, staff stated, the Fb group mapped out the community in preparation for rooting out the entire operation, a typical process for combating coordinated inauthentic conduct.
Usually, the accounts promoted YouTube movies about issues in Pakistan. Some featured a channel run by Amjad Ayub Mirza, a author from the Pakistani-controlled a part of Kashmir who has declared that Muslims are handled effectively in India and has referred to as on minorities in Pakistan to stand up towards the federal government.
“The truth is that the individuals being persecuted inside India and in addition exterior the nation are literally the Hindus,” Mirza as soon as told an interviewer. “One has to ponder over the query — the place did terrorism begin from? Terrorism began from Pakistan.”
In simply 32 minutes on Could 24, 2021, a Publish assessment discovered, 28 accounts from the covert Chinar Corps community on Twitter shared a put up criticizing Pakistan’s therapy of Muslim Uyghurs who had fled oppression in China. Some made the purpose in English or Hindi that “Pakistan shouldn’t be a secure place for Muslim minorities.” Twitter launched its database of community account exercise to researchers final 12 months, and The Publish obtained it. Although the database didn’t attribute the accounts to any entity, staff at Twitter and Fb instructed The Publish they had been from the Chinar Corps. A analysis group on the Stanford Web Observatory pointed to circumstantial proof of a connection between the accounts and the army unit. Fb stated it didn’t protect its accounts, making analysis harder.
A minimum of 43 tweets contained some model of: “My faith is Islam, however my tradition is Hinduism.” One other dozen stated the account holders had been Muslim however “Indian first.”
The marketing campaign was unfolding at a delicate time in Kashmir, claimed in its entirety by each India and Pakistan and divided into Indian- and Pakistani-controlled sections. For many years, India administered its portion as a semiautonomous area whereas its military fought a separatist insurgency that was supported by many Muslims there and infrequently backed by Pakistan.
In 2019, the Modi authorities surprised the world by saying a constitutional change that revoked Kashmir’s semiautonomous standing and transferred it to New Delhi’s direct rule. The transfer triggered protests in addition to the military crackdown in Kashmir, which included alleged torture and widespread web shutdowns. With well-liked anger reaching a boiling level in Kashmir, the Indian authorities felt pressed to reply.
In public, Indian officers argued that Kashmir’s Muslims would profit from nearer integration with India. In the meantime, the Chinar Corps covertly unfold its messaging. Jibran Nazir, a Kashmiri journalist working in central India, stated he was “shocked” to sooner or later discover his picture adopted because the avatar of two nameless Twitter accounts spreading the #NayaKashmir, or “New Kashmir” hashtag, which touted Kashmir’s prosperity below New Delhi’s management.
“They had been just lately created accounts that had greater than 1,000 followers every,” Nazir recalled. “The accounts needed to indicate Kashmiris are doing effectively, which they’re not.”
The Chinar Corps’ stealth operation stored pushing that line — but additionally went additional. It singled out unbiased Kashmiri journalists by title, disclosing their private info and attacking them utilizing the nameless Twitter accounts @KashmirTraitors and @KashmirTraitor1, in response to Stanford’s analysis and The Publish’s assessment.
One goal was journalist Qazi Shibli and his publication, the Kashmiriyat.
“@TheKashmiriyat posts #faux information on the varied operations performed by the #IndianArmy inflicting hate amongst individuals for the #Military,” @KashmirTraitors wrote in a collection of tweets. “Even the constructive issues like ration distribution which might be occurring in #Kashmir are proven in a unfavorable prospect in posts of @TheKashmiriyat.”
“The #traitor behind this account and web site is @QaziShibli (born in 1993) who has been detained quite a few occasions below varied expenses for cybercrimes and posting content material towards nationwide safety.”
Shibli’s dwelling was raided, and he was jailed repeatedly on expenses together with violation of the Public Security Act, in response to the Committee to Protect Journalists. The strain on-line was crippling, Shibli stated.
“Lots of people left work on the Kashmiriyat” due to the assaults, he instructed The Publish. “It acquired to the purpose that lots of people weren’t keen to work with us.”
Shibli stated that sources dried up and that even private mates grew afraid to talk with him.
The @KashmirTraitors tweet with essentially the most “likes” focused journalist Fahad Shah in early 2021, saying the founding father of the Kashmir Walla journal “rigorously publishes content material on anti-#India sentiments.”
Shah’s protection of Kashmir had been printed by the Guardian, Foreign Affairs and Time. He was later arrested and accused of “regularly glorifying terrorism, spreading faux information, and instigating individuals” below the Illegal Actions Prevention Act. He stays in jail right this moment.
A safety official just lately based mostly in Kashmir with information of the matter confirmed the existence of the Chinar community, saying it was a failed try to counter narratives from Pakistan.
A few months into its investigation, Fb’s coordinated inauthentic conduct group handed their findings to supervisors and safety coverage chief Nathaniel Gleicher, who then knowledgeable Fb’s group in India.
Executives there started elevating objections. It wasn’t the primary time they’d.
Even earlier than Modi’s rise in 2014, the main U.S. social media corporations had been overwhelmed by the sheer variety of languages and cultures that make up India, in response to present and former staff. Inflammatory speech was typically coded with slang or references that eluded these unfamiliar with India’s political historical past, tradition or the most recent memes.
However the issue wasn’t nearly assets. Workers described broad reluctance to take down posts of any type from Modi’s BJP or its associates or to make designations that will solid India in a unfavorable mild.
Indian content material moderation “was at all times a hands-off scenario due to the political pushback,” stated a former worker accustomed to the India group. Throughout inner discussions with executives in California and elsewhere, the India workplace argued in impact that “that is our space, don’t contact it,” the worker stated. India-related content-policy staff “would use a case-law-setting tone, as an alternative of what human hurt was being performed.”
After U.S. Fb staff in 2020 warned that Indian Hindu nationalist teams had been spreading the hashtag #coronajihad, implying that Indian Muslims had been deliberately spreading the coronavirus in a conspiracy to wage holy conflict, a content material coverage staffer for the area pushed again, arguing that the meme didn’t quantity to hate speech as a result of it wasn’t explicitly concentrating on a individuals, two former staff recalled. (Fb ultimately barred searches for that hashtag, however trying to find simply “coronajihad” returns accusatory posts.)
In late 2019, Fb information scientist Sophie Zhang tried to take away an inauthentic community that she stated included the web page of a BJP member of Parliament. She was repeatedly stymied by the corporate’s particular therapy of politicians and companions, often known as Xcheck or “cross examine.” Fb later stated most of the accounts had been taken down although it couldn’t set up that the BJP member of parliament’s web page had been a part of the community.
The next 12 months, paperwork obtained by Fb employee-turned-whistleblower Frances Haugen present, Kashmiris had been deluged with violent photos and hate speech after army and police operations there. Fb stated it subsequently eliminated some “borderline content material and civic and political Teams from our suggestion methods.”
In a single inner case research on India seen by The Publish, Fb discovered that pages with ties to the Hindu nationalist umbrella group Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS) in contrast Muslims to “pigs” and falsely claimed that the Quran requires males to rape feminine members of the family. However Fb staff didn’t internally nominate the RSS — with which the BJP is affiliated — for a hate group designation given “political sensitivities,” the case research discovered.
In a slide deck about political affect on content material coverage from December 2020, Fb staff wrote that the corporate “routinely makes exceptions for highly effective actors when implementing content material coverage,” citing India for example.
A key roadblock was Fb’s prime coverage particular person and lobbyist within the area, Ankhi Das, who instructed staff it would hurt the company’s business prospects to take down posts comparable to one by a distinguished BJP official that referred to as for capturing Muslims. She additionally shared commentary on her personal web page through which a former official described Muslims as a historically degenerate group.
After an August 2020 Wall Road Journal story spotlighted her interventions, Das resigned that October.
However the pro-government leanings prolonged past Das and mirrored a long-standing tradition inside Fb to deal with India — and its highly effective BJP authorities — with a lightweight contact, in response to present and former staff in India and the USA.
After Das’s departure in 2020, Meta appointed Shivnath Thukral, a former public relations govt who had been head of public coverage at Meta’s WhatsApp subsidiary since 2017, to supervise public coverage for Meta in India on an interim foundation. He assumed the place on a everlasting foundation in November 2022.
Thukral was nearer to the BJP than Das: He had labored on Modi’s nationwide marketing campaign in 2014 and had collaborated with Hiren Joshi, a longtime Modi aide who’s right this moment the prime minister’s head of communications, on a pro-Modi web site referred to as Modi Bharosa, or “Modi is Belief,” recalled a former Modi staffer who labored with each males. The positioning churned out glowing articles about Modi’s financial file and accused his political rivals of fomenting riots or misgoverning the nation.
Across the time of Das’s departure, the BJP’s head of social media, Amit Malviya, stored the strain on Fb by sharing, in interviews with information retailers and on Twitter, the employment and private backgrounds of Fb staff and calling out those that had beforehand labored for liberal politicians or causes.
Quickly after, Fb India’s head, Ajit Mohan, addressed the employees at an all-hands assembly. His message: He didn’t need Fb staff to develop into the main target of exterior consideration.
In response to inquiries for this story, Fb stated it has employed extra employees, now evaluations content material in 20 Indian languages and has companions that may fact-check in 15 languages.
“We prohibit coordinated inauthentic conduct, hate speech and content material that incites violence, and we implement these insurance policies globally,” Fb spokesperson Margarita Franklin stated within the firm’s solely direct remark.
“As a worldwide firm, we function in an more and more advanced regulatory setting and are targeted on holding individuals secure once they use our providers and guaranteeing the security of our staff in a way according to relevant legal guidelines and human rights ideas.” Fb declined to make any of the staff named on this story out there for interviews.
Because the controversy over its dealing with of hate in India grew in 2019, Fb employed the regulation agency Foley Hoag to review and write about its efficiency there in what is known as a human rights affect evaluation. Some rights teams frightened that the agency would go straightforward on Fb as a result of one in all its human rights legal professionals on the time, Brittan Heller, was married to Gleicher, Fb’s head of safety coverage.
However the agency interviewed exterior specialists and Fb staff and located that dozens of pages that had been calling Muslims rapists and terrorists and describing them as an enemy to be eradicated had not been eliminated, even after being reported.
Foley Hoag cited a number of underlying points, together with the shortage of native specialists in hate speech, the applying of U.S. speech requirements when Indian legal guidelines referred to as for higher restriction of assaults on faith, and a legalistic method that, for instance, withheld motion if a topic of threats was not explicitly focused for his or her ethnicity or faith.
Foley Hoag discovered that the corporate allowed incendiary hate speech to unfold within the lead-up to lethal riots in Delhi in 2020 and violence elsewhere, in response to individuals briefed on its prolonged doc. It really helpful that the corporate publish the report, title a vp for human rights and rent extra individuals versed in Indian cultures.
As a substitute of releasing the findings, Fb wrote a largely constructive four-page abstract and buried it towards the top of an 83-page global human rights report in July 2022. That readout stated the regulation agency “famous the potential for Meta’s platforms to be linked to salient human rights dangers attributable to third events.” It stated the precise report had made undisclosed suggestions, which the corporate was “finding out.”
Foley Hoag accomplice Gare Smith stated by e mail that the agency’s human rights affect evaluation “was performed in accordance with the very best moral requirements and pursuant to steering supplied by the U.N. Guiding Rules on Enterprise and Human Rights. Inasmuch because it was performed below privilege, we can’t touch upon particular parts of the Evaluation or on our consumer’s abstract of it.”
Fb stated that it discloses extra on its human rights efficiency than some other social media firm and that it withheld the complete report due to considerations about worker security.
Fb executives equally downplayed issues reported by exterior teams. The London Story, a Netherlands-based human rights group, reported a whole bunch of posts that it stated violated the corporate’s guidelines. Fb requested for extra info, after which requested for it in a distinct format, then stated it could work to enhance issues if the group stayed quiet. When nothing occurred, the group succeeded in getting a gathering with the corporate’s Oversight Board, created to deal with a small variety of high-profile content material disputes.
It took greater than a 12 months to take away a 2019 video with 32 million views, in response to the London Story’s govt director, Ritumbra Manuvie.
Within the video, Yati Narsinghanand, a right-wing cleric, says in Hindi to a crowd: “I wish to get rid of Muslims and Islam from the face of earth.” Fb took it down simply earlier than the London Story launched a report on the issue in 2022.
Variations had been then posted once more. One remained seen as of Monday, however on Tuesday, after Fb was requested for remark, it was now not out there.
When Fb’s investigators introduced their Kashmir findings to the India workplace, they anticipated a cold response. The India group regularly argued that Fb insurance policies didn’t apply to a specific case. Generally, they argued that they didn’t apply to sovereign governments.
However this time, their rejection was strident.
“They stated they could possibly be arrested and charged with treason,” stated an individual concerned within the dispute.
Fb’s India group, together with coverage chief Thukral and communications head Bipasha Chakrabarti, was particularly nervous after police raids on Twitter, two individuals recalled. In 2021, the Indian authorities was feuding with Twitter over its refusal to take down tweets from protesting farmers. Officers dispatched police to the house of Twitter’s India head and anti-terrorism items to 2 Twitter places of work. Some officers publicly threatened Twitter executives with jail time.
Two former Fb executives stated they’d believed that their colleagues’ fears had been real, although no authorized motion was ever taken towards them.
“I’m not offended at Fb,” one stated. “I’m offended on the Indian authorities for placing the individuals who labored on this ready the place they couldn’t handle the harms that they discovered.”
Blocked by their very own colleagues, Fb’s U.S. risk group handed the Chinar Corps info to their counterparts at Twitter. Fb staff stated they’d been hoping that Twitter would comply with the leads and root out the parallel operation on that platform. The group’s members additionally hoped that Twitter would do the primary takedown, giving Fb political cowl so it wouldn’t need to face authorities retribution alone and its inner dispute could possibly be resolved.
Twitter, which had been extra forceful in pushing again towards the Indian authorities, took no motion. It instructed Fb employees that it was having technical points.
In reality, the San Francisco firm was altering course.
The Indian police raids and public feedback from authorities officers criticizing the corporate had scared off companies that Twitter had deliberate to make use of for promotion, former Twitter staff stated. “We noticed a really apparent slowdown in person development,” one former coverage chief stated. “The federal government may be very influential there.”
The previous govt added: “We had simply promised [Wall] Road 3x person development, and the one method that was going to be doable was with India.”
One other former coverage staffer stated Twitter’s larger drawback was bodily threats to staff, whereas former security chief Yoel Roth wrote within the New York Occasions this month that Twitter’s legal professionals had warned that staff in India may be charged with sedition, which carries a dying penalty.
In any case, Twitter was uninterested in main the way in which with takedowns, and it modified the way it handled the federal government total. The corporate didn’t reply to a request for remark.
Fishman, the previous senior Fb govt, stated the U.S. tech corporations is not going to reply extra forcefully to Indian authorities strain except they obtain assist from the U.S. State Division, the place onetime cybersecurity govt Nate Fick has been named the primary cyber ambassador and has constructed out a group targeted on web freedom and safety points.
“If we wish free speech, [if] we wish free elections, whereas these corporations should not the preferred establishments on the planet, we want U.S. coverage to have their backs at occasions,” Fishman stated. Fick didn’t reply to requests for remark.
However whereas Indian activist teams and worldwide democracy displays have warned concerning the erosion of democratic norms below the Modi authorities, the Biden administration has largely avoided publicly criticizing a rustic seen as an important strategic counterweight to China within the Indo-Pacific.
After conferences with Modi in Washington and New Delhi this 12 months, Biden supplied no criticism. Uzra Zeya, U.S. undersecretary of state for civilian safety, democracy and human rights, visited India in July. She didn’t publicly remark about India’s human rights or its democracy after assembly International Secretary Vinay Kwatra, however stated in a Twitter put up: “Grateful for the important #USIndia partnership & shared efforts to advance a free & open Indo-Pacific, regional stability, and civilian safety.”
A senior State Division official, talking on the situation of anonymity due to the sensitivity of the problem, stated that regardless of the shortage of public remark, American diplomats are engaged with India on censorship and propaganda.
“These are exactly the sorts of points that we increase on a bilateral foundation at each the working and senior ranges of presidency,” he stated. “The U.S. is dedicated to making sure that tech is a power for empowerment, innovation and well-being, and dealing to make sure that the world’s largest democracy is aligned with us on this imaginative and prescient is a prime coverage precedence.”
As Fb’s India group delayed performing on the Chinar inauthentic community, the propaganda investigators in Washington and California labored on much less controversial topics.
“You might have solely a lot time within the day, and if you already know you’re going to run into political challenges, you may spend your time investigating in Azerbaijan or some place else that gained’t be a problem. Name it a chilling impact. That dynamic is actual,” stated Fishman, the previous senior Fb govt.
The deadlock continued till the U.S. group demanded motion from Nick Clegg, then Meta’s highly effective vice president of worldwide affairs, who had been put in control of India public coverage. Clegg was later named president of worldwide affairs.
Lastly, after discussions with Fb’s prime legal professionals, Clegg dominated in favor of the risk group, staff stated.
However the India executives had a request: They requested that Fb at the very least break with previous observe and never disclose the takedown.
Since coming below fireplace for failing to identify Russian propagandists utilizing its platform in the course of the 2016 U.S. presidential marketing campaign, Fb has routinely introduced important removals of disinformation. It typically describes what the marketing campaign was making an attempt to do and the way it did it, and there may be regularly direct attribution to a nationwide authorities or sufficient element for readers to guess.
The concept is to extend transparency that might assist disinformation hunters and deter its spreaders from making an attempt once more. Smaller takedowns are described extra briefly in quarterly summaries.
This time, the India facet argued that it could be unwise to embarrass the Indian army and that doing so would improve the chance of authorized motion.
Clegg and Fb chief authorized officer Jennifer Newstead agreed, staffers stated. At their course, Fb modified its coverage to state that it would disclose takedowns except doing so would endanger staff.
Following commonplace observe, Fb eliminated the faux accounts, and the official Chinar Corps pages they’d been working with on Fb and Instagram, on Jan. 28, 2022. (After the Indian military publicly complained concerning the takedown of the official pages, they had been reinstated.)
That March, Twitter adopted Fb and quietly eliminated the Chinar Corps’ parallel community on its platform and shared it with researchers. In personal conferences with Fb and Twitter executives, the military defended its faux accounts and stated they had been essential to fight Pakistani disinformation.
Fb didn’t disclose the takedown, and Twitter hasn’t issued what had been twice-yearly summaries of its enforcement actions since one for the interval that resulted in December 2021.
A month later, Fb issued a quarterly “adversarial threat report” that listed takedowns of inauthentic networks concentrating on customers in Iran, Azerbaijan, Ukraine, Brazil, Costa Rica, El Salvador and the Philippines.
It stated nothing about India.
Shih reported from New Delhi. Jeremy B. Merrill in Atlanta and Karishma Mehrotra in New Delhi contributed to this report.
Design by Anna Lefkowitz. Visible modifying by Chloe Meister, Joe Moore and Jennifer Samuel. Copy modifying by Feroze Dhanoa and Martha Murdock. Story modifying by Mark Seibel. Mission modifying by Jay Wang.